The Spray Condenser. The coolant is sprayed, using nozzles, into a vessel to which the vapor is supplied. This is shown schematically in Figure 1.It is important that the spray nozzles and vessel are designed to produce a fine spray of liquid (to give a large interfacial area for heat transfer), and a long enough residence time of liquid droplets in the vessel. Condenser Calculation Using Thermo Utilities MS Excel. Design of Batch Distillation Columns Using Short Cut. Air Cooled Condenser A Frame Air Cooled Condenser Hybrid. Residential Load Calculation Spreadsheet Electrical Knowhow. Condenser design software for shell and tube heat exchangers.
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Distillation is a commonly employed separation technique bases on difference in volatilities. The modern form of distillation as is is known today may be credited to early Arab alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan and the development of one of his inventions, the alembic. The distillation apparatus is commonly referred to as a still and consists of a minimum of a reboiler in which mixture to be separated is heated, a condenser in which the vapor components are cooled back to liquid form, and a receiver in which the concentrated liquid component fractions are collected. Ideally, distillation is governed by the principles of Raoult’s Law and Dalton’s Law. Dalton’s Law states that for a mixture, the total vapor pressure is equal to the sum of the individual vapor pressures of the pure components which comprise this mixture. The relationship giving the vapor pressure of a volatile component in a mixture, PA, is Raoult’s Law and is governed by the following equation:
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[P_A = X_AP_A^o]
Where XA is the mole fraction of component A in the mixture and PA° is the vapor pressure of pure component A. This ideal model is based on a binary mixture of benzene and toluene but for other mixtures severe deviations from Raoult’s Law may be observed due to molecular interactions. For these aforementioned mixtures where the components are not similar the only accurate alternative is obtaining vapor-liquid equilibrium by measurement.
In simple distillation, two liquids with differing boiling points are separated by immediately passing the vapors from the reboiler to a condensing column which condenses the vapor components. As a result the distillate is not usually pure but its composition may be determined by Raoult’s Law at the temperature and pressure at which the vapors were boiled off. Consequently, simple distillation is usually used to separate binary mixtures where the boiling temperatures of the individual components are usually significantly different or to separate volatile liquids from non-volatile solids.
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A reference of terms used in distillation reference are included at the end of this article.